Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has been awarded for outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and for work in peace. In 1968, economic sciences were added to the list of fields.
Alfred Nobel’s greatness was in his ability to combine the thoughts of a scientist and inventor with the forward thinking of an industrialist. Crazy in his lifetime, he was very interested in peace and social issues. The Nobel Prize is an extension of his lifetime interests. Nobel held 355 different patents, dynamite being the most famous. In his last will, he used his enormous fortune to create the Nobel Prizes, none more famous than the prize for peace. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by a committee of five persons who are chosen by the Norwegian Storting (Parliament of Norway), Oslo, Norway. 92 Nobel Peace Prizes have been awarded since 1901. It was not awarded on 19 occasions: in 1914-1918, 1923, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1939- 1943, 1948, 1955-1956, 1966-1967 and 1972.
The Nobel Peace Prize 2011 was awarded jointly to Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman “for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”.